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Species Tests cover both full fauna in field (both in and off crop) and semi-field and specifically-selected NTAs in field and semi-field conditions.

Semi-field bioassays use a variety of model crop systems. Test designs can incorporate multiple product applications or can simulate spray programmes using multiple application factors (MAF). Cages can be used to confine invertebrates on the treated crops.

Field trials in which sampling programmes are carried out to determine the impact of a test item on the natural arthropod fauna. Both in-crop and off-crop scenarios can be tested. We have extensive experience of such trials in arable crops (cereals, oilseed rape and maize).

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A range of sampling techniques is available to monitor numbers of the key groups of arthropods pre- and post-treatment. Sampling methods (e.g. pitfall traps, suction samplers, sticky traps, sweep netting, fogging) are tailored to the arthropod guilds considered to be of greatest interest in a particular crop.

We also carry out field and semi-field studies for soil organisms.